Monday, 11 August 2014

resistance education

Theory and Resistance in Education: A Pedagogy for the Opposition

On the surface, the macro themes of Theory and Resistance in Education are neither new nor startling. Giroux wants schools to participate in the recreation of a new society; he perceives schools as viable and potent vehicles for dramatic social change. However, the analytical process he applies to arrive at those macro themes consists of relatively new and unexplored methodology within U.S. educational circles, since it represents a potentially dynamic application of the Frankfurt School of “critical sociology.” It is a methodology that values political action and utilizes “critique” (analysis, synthesis, and evaluation). It is from that methodology that Giroux builds his pedagogy and his curriculum: “A Pedagogy for the Opposition.” Described by Hansen as “an effort to come to grips with the nature of individual consciousness and its relation to social order and change,” critical sociology “emphasizes that human choice is not between simple alternatives, that seemingly contradictory things can... 


improving higher education


Improving Higher Education: Total Quality Care.
Barnett, Ronald
This book presents two dominant and rival conceptions of quality in higher education. One is based on the expression of the tacit conceptions of value and propriety in the academic community. It is the character and quality of the continuing interactions of higher education's members that are at issue rather than any endpoint or definitive outcome. In the alternative conception, higher education is seen as the issuing of products, with inputs and outputs. In this view, the quality of the system is understood in terms of its "performance" as captured in performance indicators, and effectiveness is assessed in terms of its efficiency. This book clarifies the nature and substance of higher education and quality. It discusses issues concerning quality of higher education, such as performance indicators, fitness for purpose, value added, peer review, total quality management, and academic audit. It then addresses improving the quality of the educational process and grapples with the "student experience," skills in the curriculum, transferable skills, competence, critical thinking, and the idea of the "reflective practitioner." Principles are offered as guidelines for the continuing improvement of the quality of higher education. An appendix presents a schema for an institutional quality audit. (Contains a bibliography of approximately 245 references.) (JDD)

Open University Press, 1900 Frost Rd., Suite 101, Bristol, PA 19007 ($29).
Publication Type: Books; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: Practitioners
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Society for Research into Higher Education, Ltd., London (England).
Identifiers: N/A

education reality

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american higher education




The roots of controversy surrounding higher education in the US extend deep into the past. This original, incisive history goes far in offering a needed sense of perspective on current debates over such issues as access, costs, academic quality, social equity, and curricula. Eminently readable and always lively, this timely historical account is sure to be an invaluable resource for assessing the present condition and future prospects of American colleges and universities. This book is written in four parts. Part I, "Historical Origins and Antecedents", contains: (1) Higher Learning in Antiquity; (2) From Cathedral Church Schools to Universities; and (3) Post-Medieval Academe: Evolution and Estrangement. Part II, "American Higher Education: The Formative Period", contains: (4) The American Colonial and Antebellum College; and (5) The Evolving American University. Part III, "American Higher Education: Maturation and Development", contains: (6) American Academe in the Early Twentieth Century; and (7) Postwar Higher Learning in America. Part IV, "Contemporary Challenges and Issues", contains: (8) Another Season of Discontent: The Critics; and (9) Epilogue: In Historical Retrospect. This book also includes: Acknowledgements; Introduction; Notes; Sources and References; and Index.

opportunity of health

The topics of particular importance in contemporary sociology are inequality of educational opportunity (IEO) and mechanisms of social mobility (or immobility). IEO refers to the differences in level of educational attainment according to social background. Social mobility means the differences in social achievement according to social background. When taken in this restricted sense, social immobility can also be called inequality of social opportunity (ISO). This book describes an attempt to synthesize the main findings accumulated by empirical research on these two closely related points. The synthesis takes the form of a simulation model. In the first part of the model a theory is developed leading to some specific conclusions on a number of questions related to IEO. In the second part of the model, the change over time in IEO and in other factors, such as overall average increase in level of educational attainment, is related to ISO. This leads to an examination of the effects on social mobility of the tremendous increase in rates of school attendance that has occurred in most societies since 1945. In varying the model, wide use is made of the impressive set of data collected by The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (Author/JM)

Saturday, 26 July 2014

dental health education

Has a trip to your dentist’s office ever left you scratching your head and saying to yourself, “what’s a [insert confusing dental term here]?!” Well look no further, thanks to , the ideal dental health term cheat sheet is always just a click away. And, it will have you talking like a dentist — or at least better understand what they’re saying — in no time!
Remember — the more you understand about your dental health care, the better the choices you’ll make in regard to that care.
abscess: an infection of a tooth, soft tissue, or bone
abutment: tooth or teeth on either side of a missing tooth that support a fixed or removable bridge.
acrylic resin: the plastic widely used in dentistry.
ADA Seal of Acceptance: a designation awarded to products that have met American Dental Association’s criteria for safety and effectiveness and whose packaging and advertising claims are scientifically supported.
adjustment: a modification made upon a dental prosthesis after it has been completed and inserted into the mouth.
air abrasion/micro abrasion: a drill-free technique that blasts the tooth surface with air and an abrasive. This is a relatively new technology that may avoid the need for an anesthetic and can be used to remove tooth decay, old composite restorations and superficial stains and discolorations, and prepare a tooth surface for bonding or sealants.
alveolar bone: the bone surrounding the root of the tooth, anchoring it in place; loss of this bone is typically associated with severe periodontal (gum) disease.
amalgam: a common filling material used to repair cavities. The material, also known as “silver fillings,” contains mercury in combination with silver, tin, copper, and sometimes zinc.
anaerobic bacteria: bacteria that do not need oxygen to grow; they are generally associated with periodontal disease (see below).
analgesia: a state of pain relief; an agent for lessening pain.
anesthesia: a type of medication that results in partial or complete elimination of pain sensation; numbing a tooth is an example of local anesthesia; general anesthesia produces partial or complete unconsciousness.
antibiotic: a drug that stops or slows the growth of bacteria.
antiseptic: a chemical agent that can be applied to living tissues to destroy germs.
apex: the tip of the root of a tooth.
appliance: any removable dental restoration or orthodontic device.
arch: a description of the alignment of the upper or lower teeth.
baby bottle tooth decay: decay in infants and children, most often affecting the upper front teeth, caused by sweetened liquids given and left clinging to the teeth for long periods (for example, in feeding bottles or pacifiers). Also called early childhood carries.
bicuspid: the fourth and fifth teeth from the center of the mouth to the back of the mouth. These are the back teeth that are used for chewing; they only have two points (cusps). Adults have eight bicuspids (also called premolars), two in front of each group of molars.
biofeedback: a relaxation technique that involves learning how to better cope with pain and stress by altering behavior, thoughts, and feelings.
biopsy: removal of a small piece of tissue for diagnostic examination.

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bite: relationship of the upper and lower teeth upon closure (occlusion).
bite-wing: a single X-ray that shows teeth (from crown to about the level of the supporting bone) in a select area on the same film.
bleaching: chemical or laser treatment of natural teeth that uses peroxide to produce the whitening effect.
bonding: the covering of a tooth surface with a tooth-colored composite to repair and/or change the color or shape of a tooth, for instance, due to stain or damage.
bone resorption: decrease in the amount of bone supporting the roots of teeth; a common result of periodontal (gum) disease.
braces: devices (bands, wires, ceramic appliances) put in place by orthodontists to gradually reposition teeth to a more favorable alignment.
bridge: stationary dental prosthesis (appliance) fixed to teeth adjacent to a space; replaces one or more missing teeth, cemented or bonded to supporting teeth or implants adjacent to the space. Also called a fixed partial denture.
bruxism: grinding or gnashing of the teeth, most commonly during sleep.
calcium: an element needed for the development of healthy teeth, bones, and nerves.
calculus: hard, calcium-like deposits that form on teeth due to inadequate plaque control, often stained yellow or brown. Also called “tartar.”
canker sore: sores or small shallow ulcers that appear in the mouth and often make eating and talking uncomfortable; they typically appear in people between the ages of 10 and 20 and last about a week in duration before disappearing.
cap: common term for a dental crown.
caries: tooth decay or “cavities.”
cementum: hard tissue that covers the roots of teeth.
clasp: device that holds a removable partial denture to stationary teeth.
cleaning: removal of plaque and calculus (tarter) from teeth, generally above the gum line.
cleft lip: a physical split or separation of the two sides of the upper lip that appears as a narrow opening or gap in the skin of the upper lip. This separation often extends beyond the base of the nose and includes the bones of the upper jaw and/or upper gum.
cleft palate: a split or opening in the roof of the mouth.
composite resin filling: tooth-colored restorative material composed of plastic with small glass or ceramic particles; usually “cured” or hardened with filtered light or chemical catalyst. An alternative to silver amalgam fillings.
conventional denture: a denture that is ready for placement in the mouth about eight to 12 weeks after the teeth have been removed.
cosmetic (aesthetic) dentistry: a branch of dentistry under which treatments are performed to enhance the color and shape of teeth.
crown: (1) the portion of a tooth above the gum line that is covered by enamel; (2) dental restoration covering all or most of the natural tooth; the artificial cap can be made of porcelain, composite, or metal and is cemented on top of the damaged tooth.
cuspids: the third tooth from the center of the mouth to the back of the mouth. These are the front teeth that have one rounded or pointed edge used for biting. Also known as canines.
cusps: the high points on the chewing surfaces of the back teeth.
cyst: an abnormal sac containing gas, fluid, or a semisolid material.
DDS: Doctor of Dental Surgery — equivalent to DMD, Doctor of Dental Medicine.
decay: destruction of tooth structure caused by toxins produced by bacteria.
deciduous teeth: commonly called “baby teeth” or primary teeth; the first set of (usually) 20 teeth.
demineralization: loss of mineral from tooth enamel just below the surface in a carious lesion; usually appears as a white area on the tooth surface.
dentin: inner layer of tooth structure, immediately under the surface enamel.
denture: a removable replacement of artificial teeth for missing natural teeth and surrounding tissues. Two types of dentures are available — complete and partial. Complete dentures are used when all the teeth are missing, while partial dentures are used when some natural teeth remain.
DMD: Doctor of Medical Dentistry; equivalent to DDS, Doctor of Dental Surgery.
dry mouth: a condition in which the flow of saliva is reduced and there is not enough saliva to keep the mouth moist. Dry mouth can be the result of certain medications (such as antihistamines and decongestants), certain diseases (such as Sj√∂gren’s syndrome, HIV/AIDS, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes), certain medical treatments (such as head and neck radiation), as well as nerve damage, dehydration, tobacco use, and surgical removal of the salivary glands. Also called xerostomia.
dry socket: a common complication that occurs when either a blood clot has failed to form in an extracted tooth socket or else the blood clot that did form has been dislodged.
edentulous: having no teeth.
enamel: the hard, mineralized material that covers the outside portion of the tooth that lies above the gum line (the crown).
endodontics: a field of dentistry concerned with the biology and pathology of the dental pulp and root tissues of the tooth and with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases and injuries of these tissues. A root canal is a commonly performed endodontic procedure.
endodontist: a dental specialist concerned with the causes, diagnosis, pentionrev, and treatment of diseases and injuries of the human dental pulp or the nerve of the tooth.
eruption: the emergence of the tooth from its position in the jaw.
extraction: removal of a tooth.
filling: restoration of lost tooth structure with metal, porcelain, or resin materials.
fistula: channel emanating pus from an infection site; a gum boil.

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flap surgery: lifting of gum tissue to expose and clean underlying tooth and bone structures.
flossing: a thread-like material used to clean between the contact areas of teeth; part of a good daily oral hygiene plan.
fluoride: a mineral that helps strengthen teeth enamel making teeth less susceptible to decay. Fluoride is ingested through food or water, is available in most toothpastes, or can be applied as a gel or liquid to the surface of teeth by a dentist.
fluorosis: discoloration of the enamel due to too much fluoride ingestion (greater than one part per million) into the bloodstream, also called enamel mottling.
general dentist: the primary care dental provider. This dentist diagnoses, treats, and manages overall oral health care needs, including gum care, root canals, fillings, crowns, veneers, bridges, and preventive education.
gingiva: the soft tissue that surrounds the base of the teeth; the pink tissue around the teeth.
gingivectomy: surgical removal of gum tissue.
gingivitis: inflamed, swollen, and reddish gum tissue that may bleed easily when touched or brushed. It is the first step in a series of events that begins with plaque build up in the mouth and may end — if not properly treated — with periodontitis and tooth loss due to destruction of the tissue that surrounds and supports the teeth.
gingivoplasty: a procedure performed by periodontists to reshape the gum tissue.
gold fillings: an alternative to silver amalgam fillings.
gum recession: exposure of dental roots due to shrinkage of the gums as a result of abrasion, periodontal disease, or surgery.
gutta percha: material used in the filling of root canals.
halitosis: bad breath of oral or gastrointestinal origin.
handpiece: the instrument used to hold and revolve burs in dental operations.
hard palate: the bony front portion of the roof of the mouth.
hygienist: a licensed, auxiliary dental professional who is both an oral health educator and clinician who uses preventive, therapeutic, and educational methods to control oral disease.
hypersensitivity: a sharp, sudden painful reaction in teeth when exposed to hot, cold, sweet, sour, salty, chemical, or mechanical stimuli.
immediate denture: a complete or partial denture that is made in advance and can be positioned as soon as the natural teeth are removed.
impacted tooth: a tooth that is partially or completely blocked from erupting through the surface of the gum. An impacted tooth may push other teeth together or damage the bony structures supporting the adjacent tooth. Often times, impacted teeth must be surgically removed.
implant: a metal rod (usually made of titanium) that is surgically placed into the upper or lower jawbone where a tooth is missing; it serves as the tooth root and anchor for the crown, bridge, or denture that is placed over it.
impression: mold made of the teeth and soft tissues.
incision and drainage: surgical incision of an abscess to drain pus.
incisors: four upper and four lower front teeth, excluding the cuspids (canine teeth). These teeth are used primarily for biting and cutting.
inlay: similar to a filling but the entire work lies within the cusps (bumps) on the chewing surface of the tooth.
jawbone: The hard bone that supports the face and includes alveolar bone, which anchors the teeth.
leukoplakia: a white or gray patch that develops on the tongue or the inside of the cheek. It is the mouth’s reaction to chronic irritation of the mucous membranes of the mouth.
malocclusion: “bad bite” or misalignment of the teeth or jaws.

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mandible: the lower jaw.
maxilla: the upper jaw.
mercury: a metal component of amalgam fillings.
molars: three back teeth in each dental quadrant used for grinding food.
mouth guard: a soft-fitted device that is inserted into the mouth and worn over the teeth to protect them against impact or injury.
muscle relaxant: a type of medication often prescribed to reduce stress.
nerve: tissue that conveys sensation, temperature, and position information to the brain.
nerve (root) canal: dental pulp; the internal chamber of a tooth where the nerves and blood vessels pass.
night guard: a removable acrylic appliance that fits over the upper and lower teeth used to prevent wear and temporomandibular damage caused by grinding or gnashing of the teeth during sleep.
nitrous oxide: a gas (also called laughing gas) used to reduce patient anxiety.
NSAID: a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, often used as a dental analgesic.
occlusal X-rays: an X-ray showing full tooth development and placement. Each X-ray reveals the entire arch of teeth in either the upper or lower jaw.
occlusion: the relationship of the upper and lower teeth when the mouth is closed.
onlay: a type of restoration (filling) made of metal, porcelain, or acrylic that is more extensive than an inlay in that it covers one or more cusps. Onlays are sometimes called partial crowns.
oral cavity: the mouth.
oral and maxillofacial radiologist: a oral health care provider who specializes in the production and interpretation of all types of X-ray images and data that are used in the diagnosis and management of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral and maxillofacial region.
oral and maxillofacial surgery: surgical procedures on the mouth including extractions, removal of cysts or tumors, and repair of fractured jaws.
oral hygiene: process of maintaining cleanliness of the teeth and related structures.
oral medicine: the specialty of dentistry that provides for the care of the medically complex patient through the integration of medicine and oral health care.
oral pathologist: the oral health care provider who studies the causes of diseases that alter or affect the oral structures (teeth, lips, cheeks, jaws) as well as parts of the face and neck.

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oral surgeon: the oral health care provider who performs many types of surgical procedures in and around the entire face, mouth, and jaw area.
orthodontics: dental specialty that using braces, retainers, and other dental devices to treat misalignment of teeth, restoring them to proper functioning.
orthodontist: the oral health provider who specializes in diagnosis, prevention, interception, and treatment of malocclusions, or “bad bites,” of the teeth and surrounding structures. This is the specialist whose responsibility it is to straighten teeth by movement of the teeth through bone by the use of bands, wires, braces, and other fixed or removable corrective appliances or retainers.
overbite: an excessive protrusion of the upper jaw resulting in a vertical overlap of the front teeth.
overjet: an excessive protrusion of the upper jaw resulting in a horizontal overlap of the front teeth.
overdenture: denture that fits over residual roots or dental implants.
palate: hard and soft tissue forming the roof of the mouth.
panoramic X-ray: a type of X-ray that shows a complete two dimensional representation of all the teeth in the mouth. This X-rays also shows the relationship of the teeth to the jaws and the jaws to the head.
partial denture: a removable appliance that replaces some of the teeth in either the upper or lower jaw.
pathology: study of disease.
pedodontics or pediatric dentistry: dental specialty focusing on treatment of infants, children, and young adults.
pedodontist/pediatric dentist: the oral health care provider who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of the dental problems of children from infancy to early adulthood.
periapical: region at the end of the roots of teeth.
periapical X-rays: X-rays providing complete side views from the roots to the crowns of the teeth.
periodontal ligament: The connective tissue that surrounds the tooth (specifically covering the cementum) and connects the tooth to the jawbone, holding it in place.
periodontist: the dental specialist who specializes in diagnosing, treating, and preventing diseases of the soft tissues of the mouth (the gums) and the supporting structures (bones) of the teeth (both natural and man-made teeth).
periodontitis: a more advanced stage of periodontal disease in which the inner layer of the gum and bone pull away from the teeth and form pockets and alveolar bone is destroyed.
periodontium: The tissue that lines the socket into which the root of the tooth fits.
permanent teeth: the teeth that replace the deciduous or primary teeth — also called baby teeth. There are (usually) 32 adult teeth in a complete dentition.
plaque: a colorless, sticky film composed of undigested food particles mixed with saliva and bacteria that constantly forms on the teeth. Plaque left alone eventually turns in to tartar or calculus and is the main factor in causing dental caries and periodontal disease.
pontic: a replacement tooth mounted on a fixed or removal appliance.
porcelain: a tooth-colored, sand-like material; much like enamel in appearance.

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porcelain crown: all porcelain restoration covering the coronal portion of tooth (above the gum line).
porcelain fused to metal (PFM) crown: restoration with metal caping (for strength) covered by porcelain (for appearance).
porcelain inlay or onlay: tooth-colored restoration made of porcelain, cemented or bonded in place.
post: thin metal rod inserted into the root of a tooth after root canal therapy; provides retention for a capping that replaces lost tooth structure.
pregnancy gingivitis: gingivitis that develops during pregnancy. The hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy — especially the increased level of progesterone — may make it easier for certain gingivitis-causing bacteria to grow as well as make gum tissue more sensitive to plaque and exaggerate the body’s response to the toxins (poisons) that result from plaque.
pregnancy tumors: an extreme inflammatory reaction to a local irritation (such as food particles or plaque) that occurs in up to 10% of pregnant women and often in women who also have pregnancy gingivitis. Pregnancy tumors appear on inflamed gum tissue as large lumps with deep red pinpoint markings on it, usually near the upper gum line. The red lump glistens, may bleed and crust over, and can make eating and speaking difficult and cause discomfort.
primary teeth: the first set of 20 temporary teeth. Also called baby teeth, the primary dentition, or deciduous teeth, normally fall out one by one between 6 and 12 years of age.
prophylaxis: the cleaning of the teeth for the prevention of periodontal disease and tooth decay.
prosthetics: a fixed or removable appliance used to replace missing teeth (for example, bridges, partials, and dentures).
prosthodontist: a dental specialist who is skilled in restoring or replacing teeth with fixed or removable prostheses (appliances), maintaining proper occlusion; treats facial deformities with artificial prostheses such as eyes, ears, and noses.
pulp: the living part of the tooth, located inside the dentin. Pulp contains the nerve tissue and blood vessels that supply nutrients to the tooth.
radiographic: refers to X-rays.
radio wave therapy: a therapy involving the use of low level electrical stimulation to increase blood flow and provide pain relief. In dentistry, this is one type of therapy that can be applied to the joint of individuals with temporomandibular disorder.
recontouring: a procedure in which small amounts of tooth enamel are removed to change a tooth’s length, shape, or surface. Also called odontoplasty, enameloplasty, stripping, or slenderizing.
remineralization: redeposition or replacement of the tooth’s minerals into a demineralized (previously decayed) lesion. This reverses the decay process, and is enhanced by the presence of topical fluoride.
restorations: any replacement for lost tooth structure or teeth; for example, bridges, dentures, fillings, crowns, and implants.
retainer: a removable appliance used to maintain teeth in a given position (usually worn at night).
Root Canal Abscessroot: tooth structure that connects the tooth to the jaw.
root canal therapy: procedure used to save an abscessed tooth in which the pulp chamber is cleaned out, disinfected, and filled with a permanent filling.
rubber dam: soft latex or vinyl sheet used to establish isolation of one or more teeth from contamination by oral fluids and to keep materials from falling to the back of the throat.
saliva: clear lubricating fluid in the mouth containing water, enzymes, bacteria, mucus, viruses, blood cells and undigested food particles.
salivary glands: glands located under tongue and in cheeks that produce saliva.
scaling and root planing: a deep-cleaning, nonsurgical procedure whereby plaque and tartar from above and below the gum line are scraped away (scaling) and rough spots on the tooth root are made smooth (planing).
sealants: a thin, clear or white resin substance that is applied to the biting surfaces of teeth to prevent decay.
sedative: a type of medication used to reduce pain and anxiety, and create a state of relaxation.
soft palate: the back one-third of the roof of the mouth composed of soft tissue.
space maintainer: dental device that holds the space lost through premature loss of baby teeth.
stains: can be either extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic stain is located on the outside of the tooth surface originating from external substances such as tobacco, coffee, tea, or food; usually removed by polishing the teeth with an abrasive prophylaxis paste. Intrinsic stain originates from the ingestion of certain materials or chemical substances during tooth development, or from the presence of caries. This stain is permanent and cannot be removed.
stomatitis: an inflammation of the tissue underlying a denture. Ill-fitting dentures, poor dental hygiene, or a buildup of the fungus Candida albicans cause the condition.
supernumerary tooth: an extra tooth.
tartar: common term for dental calculus, a hard deposit that adheres to teeth; produces rough surface that attracts plaque.
teething: baby teeth pushing through the gums.
temporomandibular disorder (TMD)/temporomandibular joint (TMJ): the term given to a problem that concerns the muscles and joint that connect the lower jaw with the skull. The condition is characterized by facial pain and restricted ability to open or move the jaw. It is often accompanied by a clicking or popping sound when the jaw is opened or closed.

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thrush: an infection in the mouth caused by the fungus Candida.
tooth whitening: a chemical or laser process to lighten the color of teeth.
topical anesthetic: ointment that produces mild anesthesia when applied to a soft tissue surface.
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS): a therapy that uses low-level electrical currents to provide pain relief. In dentistry, TENS is one type of therapy that can be used to relax the jaw joint and facial muscles.
transplant: placing a natural tooth in the empty socket of another tooth.
trauma: injury caused by external force, chemical, temperature extremes, or poor tooth alignment.
trigger-point injections: a method of relieving pain whereby pain medication or anesthesia is injected into tender muscles called “trigger points.” In dentistry, this is can be used in individuals with temporomandibular disorders.
ultrasound: a treatment in which deep heat is applied to an affected area to relieve soreness or improve mobility. In dentistry, ultrasound can be used to treat temporomandibular disorders.
underbite: when the lower jaw protrudes forward causing the lower jaw and teeth to extend out beyond the upper teeth.
unerupted tooth: a tooth that has not pushed through the gum and assumed its correct position in the dental arch.
veneer: a thin, custom-made shell of tooth-colored plastic or porcelain that are bonded directly to the front side of natural teeth to improve their appearance — for example, to replace lost tooth structure, close spaces, straighten teeth, or change color and/or shape.
wisdom teeth: third (last) molars that usually erupt at age 18-25.
xerostomia: dry mouth or decrease in the production of saliva.
X-rays: high frequency light (or radiation) that penetrates different substances with different rates and absorption. In dentistry, there are typically four types of X-rays: periapic

defination of health

Definition of Health
To many people, health means absence from illness. However, according to the World Health Organization (WHO, 1948),
"Health is a state of complete physicalmental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."[1]
The definition has not been amended since 1948.

[1] Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19-22 June, 1946; signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organization, no. 2, p. 100) and entered into force on 7 April 1948.
Definition of Fitness
Physical fitness is generally defined as "the ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness, without undue fatigue, and with ample energy to enjoy leisure-time pursuits and to meet unforeseen emergencies."  (USDHHS, 1996)
It is fundamental to health. It must be improved through long-term and regular participation in exercises, as well as maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Physical fitness can also be classified into two categories: (1) health-related fitness and (2) sport-related fitness.
Components of health-related fitness, also generally known as physical fitness, include cardio-respiratory endurance, muscular strength and muscular endurance, flexibility, body composition, and neuromuscular relaxation.
  1. Cardio-respiratory Endurance refers to the ability of the circulatory system and the respiratory system (i.e., heart and lungs) to supply oxygen to the working muscles and remove metabolic wastes (e.g., carbon dioxide) at the same time.
    • It is the most important component of health-related fitness because the human body and the brain must have sufficient oxygen supply to work normally. The more sufficient the oxygen supply, the more efficient the different body parts can work.
    • According to Mazzeo and his co-workers (1998), the capacity of the heart to pump blood and the body to absorb oxygen reduces 5% to 15% every 10 years after the age 25. However, participate regularly in endurance training is undoubtedly beneficial to cardio-respiratory efficiency.
  2. Muscular Strength refers to the maximum force that can be produced by a muscle or muscle group in a single contraction (i.e., 1-RM*)[1], and muscular Endurance refers to the ability of the muscles to contract repeatedly, or maintain  a submaximal force for an extended period of time.
    • Heavier workloads cannot be overcome with insufficient muscular strength and endurance, which may also lead to premature muscular fatigue and muscular pain. Besides, insufficient muscular strength and endurance is also a factor of sport injuries, or other chronic musculo-skeletal injuries.
    • Elders may also tumble easily because of weak muscular strength and endurance.
  3. Flexibility refers to the ability of a joint or a series of joints to move through its full range of movement.
    • With better flexibility, movement can be performed at higher efficiency (e.g., hurdling). Besides, good flexibility also helps to prevent sport injuries (e.g., strains).
    • Poor flexibility may also lead to lower back pain problems associated with aging.
  4. Body composition refers to the proportion of fat to non-fat components (i.e., bones and muscles) in the human body.
    • Obesity is not only detrimental to sports performances; it will also increase the chances for suffering from cardiovascular diseases.
  5. Neuromuscular relaxation refers to the ability to reduce or even eliminate unnecessary tension or contractions of muscles due to stress.
    • Being able to relax not only enables one to work more efficiently, but also facilitates sport performances.

    [1] RM (Repetition Maximum) refers to the maximum number of time(s) one can lift a given weight. 1-RM is the weight that can be lifted for only once.
Sport-related fitness is the ability for athletes to improve in their performances or results. In additional to the basic components of health-related fitness, components of sport-related fitness also include:
  • Agility
  • Balance
  • Coordination
  • Reaction Time
  • Speed
  • Power

physical health

  • Overview


    Health and Physical Education teaches students how to enhance their own and others’ health, safety, wellbeing and physical activity participation in varied and changing contexts. The Health and Physical Education learning area has strong foundations in scientific fields such as physiology, nutrition, biomechanics and psychology which inform what we understand about healthy, safe and active choices. The Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (F–10) is informed by these sciences and offers students an experiential curriculum that is contemporary, relevant, challenging, enjoyable and physically active.
    In Health and Physical Education, students develop the knowledge, understanding and skills to strengthen their sense of self, and build and manage satisfying relationships. The curriculum helps them to be resilient, and to make decisions and take actions to promote their health, safety and physical activity participation. As students mature, they develop and use critical inquiry skills to research and analyse the knowledge of the field and to understand the influences on their own and others’ health, safety and wellbeing. They also learn to use resources for the benefit of themselves and for the communities with which they identify and to which they belong.
    Integral to Health and Physical Education is the acquisition of movement skills, concepts and strategies to enable students to confidently, competently and creatively participate in a range of physical activities. As a foundation for lifelong physical activity participation and enhanced performance, students develop proficiency in movement skills, physical activities and movement concepts and acquire an understanding of the science behind how the body moves. In doing so, they develop an appreciation of the significance of physical activity, outdoor recreation and sport both in Australian society and globally. Movement is a powerful medium for learning, through which students can acquire, practise and refine personal, behavioural, social and cognitive skills.
    Health and Physical Education addresses how contextual factors influence the health, safety, wellbeing, and physical activity patterns of individuals, groups and communities. It provides opportunities for students to develop skills, self-efficacy and dispositions to advocate for, and positively influence, their own and others’ health and wellbeing.
    Healthy, active living benefits individuals and society in many ways. This includes promoting physical fitness, healthy body weight, psychological wellbeing, cognitive capabilities and learning. A healthy, active population improves productivity and personal satisfaction, promotes pro-social behaviour and reduces the occurrence of chronic disease. Health and Physical Education teaches students how to enhance their health, safety and wellbeing and contribute to building healthy, safe and active communities.
    Given these aspirations, the Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education has been shaped by five interrelated propositions that are informed by a strong and diverse research base for a futures-oriented curriculum:

    Focus on educative purposes

    The prime responsibility of the Health and Physical Education curriculum is to describe the progression and development of the disciplinary knowledge, understanding and skills underpinning Health and Physical Education and how students will make meaning of and apply them in contemporary health and movement contexts.
    Although the curriculum may contribute to a range of goals that sit beyond its educative purposes, the priority for the Health and Physical Education curriculum is to provide ongoing, developmentally appropriate and explicit learning about health and movement. The Health and Physical Education curriculum draws on its multidisciplinary evidence base to ensure that students are provided with learning opportunities to practise, create, apply and evaluate the knowledge, understanding and skills of the learning area.

    Take a strengths-based approach

    The Health and Physical Education curriculum is informed by a strengths-based approach. Rather than focusing only on potential health risks or a deficit-based model of health, the curriculum has a stronger focus on supporting students to develop the knowledge, understanding and skills they require to make healthy, safe and active choices that will enhance their own and others’ health and wellbeing.
    This approach affirms that all students and their communities have particular strengths and resources that can be nurtured to improve their own and others' health, wellbeing, movement competence and participation in physical activity. The curriculum recognises that students have varying levels of access to personal and community resources depending on a variety of contextual factors that will impact on their decisions and behaviours.

    Value movement

    Health and Physical Education is the key learning area in the curriculum that focuses explicitly on developing movement skills and concepts students require to participate in physical activities with competence and confidence. The knowledge, understanding, skills and dispositions students develop through movement in Health and Physical Education encourage ongoing participation across their lifespan and in turn lead to positive health outcomes. Movement competence and confidence is seen as an important personal and community asset to be developed, refined and valued.
    Health and Physical Education promotes an appreciation of how movement in all its forms is central to daily life — from meeting functional requirements and providing opportunities for active living to acknowledging participation in physical activity and sport as significant cultural and social practices. The study of movement has a broad and established scientific, social, cultural and historical knowledge base, informing our understanding of how and why we move and how we can improve physical performance.
    The study of movement also provides challenges and opportunities for students to enhance a range of personal and social skills and behaviours that contribute to health and wellbeing.

    Develop health literacy

    Health literacy can be understood as an individual’s ability to gain access to, understand and use health information and services in ways that promote and maintain health and wellbeing. The Health and Physical Education curriculum focuses on developing knowledge, understanding and skills related to the three dimensions of health literacy:
    • functional dimension — researching and applying information relating to knowledge and services in order to respond to a health-related question
    • interactive dimension — requires more advanced knowledge, understanding and skills to actively and independently engage with a health issue and to apply new information to changing circumstances
    • critical dimension — the ability to selectively access and critically analyse health information from a variety of sources (which might include scientific information, health brochures or messages in the media) in order to take action to promote personal health and wellbeing or that of others.
    Consistent with a strengths-based approach, health literacy is a personal and community asset to be developed, evaluated, enriched and communicated.

    Include a critical inquiry approach

    The Health and Physical Education curriculum engages students in critical inquiry processes that assist students in researching, analysing, applying and appraising knowledge in health and movement fields. In doing so, students will critically analyse and critically evaluate contextual factors that influence decision making, behaviours and actions, and explore inclusiveness, power inequalities, taken-for-granted assumptions, diversity and social justice.
    The Health and Physical Education curriculum recognises that values, behaviours, priorities and actions related to health and physical activity reflect varying contextual factors which influence the ways people live. The curriculum develops an understanding that the meanings and interests individuals and social groups have in relation to health practices and physical activity participation are diverse and therefore require different approaches and strategies.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Theory, research, and practice are a continuum along which the skilled professional should move with ease.
  • Not only are they related, but they are each essential to health education and health behavior.
  • Theory and research should not be solely the province of academics, just as practice is not solely the concern of practitioners.
  • The best theory is informed by practice; the best practice should be grounded in theory.
  • There is a tension between them that one must navigate continually, but they are not in opposition. Theory and practice enrich one another by their dynamic interaction.
  • The authors of Health Behavior and Health Education examine theories in light of their applicability. By including an explanation of theories and their application in each chapter, their intention is to break down the dichotomy between theory and practice.
  • Relationships among theory, research, and practice are not simple or linear.
  • The larger picture of health improvement and disease reduction is better described as a cycle of interacting types of endeavors, including fundamental research (research into determinants, as well as development of methodologies), intervention research (research aimed toward change), surveillance research (tracking population-wide trends, including maintenance of change), and application and program delivery